Transitional cell carcinoma involving graft kidney in a kidn
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Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment option for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) to prolong survival and improve quality of life. Although the use of potent immunosuppressive agents increases graft survival in kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs), it may lead to the development of malignancy, including transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).

Case Presentation:
A 40-year-old male visited hospital with complaints of nausea, vomiting and gross hematuria. Eleven years ago, he was diagnosed ESRD of unknown origin, and received a living related KT from his father 1 year later. Radiologic findings showed a huge polypoid mass in the pelvis of graft kidney with pelvo-calyceal dilation and a 3.3 cm-sized nodule in aortocaval chain and a 2.5 cm-sized nodule in right iliac chain as TCC stage IV. Sonography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of pelvis mass in the graft kidney revealed a low grade urothelial cell carcinoma. Radical graft nephroureterectomy was performed and histopathological diagnosis confirmed as a low grade urothelial carcinoma of graft pelvis and ureter lumen, which invaded to perirenal fat and renal parenchyma with lymphovascular presence (T3Nx). The patient started with adjuvant concurrent chemo-radiation therapy and returned to regular hemodialysis...

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