Transoesophageal echocardiography-guided ‘primary’ valve-in-
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation inside a previously implanted bioprosthesis is an alternative treatment for patients with degenerated surgical aortic bioprosthesis (AB) at high surgical risk. Pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan provides essential information to the procedure planning, although in case of acute presentation it is not always feasible.

A 32-year-old man with history of surgical treatment of aortic coarctation and Bio-Bentall procedure was transferred for cardiogenic shock with a suspected diagnosis of acute myocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed a severely impaired biventricular function and AB degeneration causing severe stenosis. It was decided to undertake an urgent trans-apical valve-in-valve (ViV) procedure.

Due to haemodynamic instability, a preoperative CT scan was not performed and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) was the main intraprocedural guiding imaging technique. Neither intraprocedural nor periprocedural complications occurred. Serial post-procedural TTE exams showed good functioning of the bioprosthesis and progressive improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction. Patient was discharged from the hospital 8 days after the intervention.

A patient with cardiogenic shock due to severe degeneration of the AB was treated with urgent transapical ViV procedure. In this case, where urgent ViV technique was needed, TOE appeared to be a crucial alternative to CT scan and allowed us to perform a successful procedure.