Traumatic neuroma of the breast after mastectomy
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Traumatic neuroma of the breast occurs rarely after mastectomy. It is a benign hyperplastic response of a transected nerve, often presenting as a palpable nodule in or near the surgical scar, and is also frequently painful. It is typically and most reliably evaluated with ultrasound, which almost always shows a small, circumscribed, hypoechoic, nonvascular, oval mass. Tapering at one end of the mass, the “tail sign,” is evident by ultrasound in about 50 percent of cases. While these features may suggest a diagnosis of traumatic neuroma, biopsy remains necessary to exclude the possibility of recurrent breast cancer.A 73-year-old asymptomatic woman presented to our breast imaging center for screening mammography. Her past medical history was significant for invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast 16 years prior that was treated with modified radical mastectomy, including removal of 17 axillary lymph nodes all negative for metastasis, followed by Tamoxifen therapy for five years.

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