Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use is associated with improve
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Pneumocystis, an opportunistic fungus, can induce inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness similar to asthma. Researchers sought to determine if pediatric patients with asthma that received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a hallmark therapy for Pneumocystis, would demonstrate improvement in lung function.

In a retrospective case-control study design, the electronic
medical record of Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh was queried form 2010-2018 for patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or clindamycin with one pulmonary function test. Patients were included if a diagnosis of asthma was present at the time of antibiotic exposure. Pulmonary function tests and ED visits for asthma exacerbation were the
primary and secondary outcomes, respectively.

Results:
--Patients with asthma that received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole had improved FEV1 and FVC following treatment when compared to baseline pulmonary function tests.

--Additionally, patients receiving trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole had improved lung function compared to
the control group receiving clindamycin. Improvement in lung function was seen in patients independent of inhaled corticosteroid dose.

--Furthermore, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but not clindamycin, use was associated with a reduced number of emergency department visits for asthma the 12 months following administration.

Conclusively, this retrospective study temporally associates the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with improved lung function and decreased emergency department visits in children with asthma. Together, the current study demonstrates that treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a standard therapy for Pneumocystis, is associated with improved asthma control.

Source: https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.jbs.elsevierhealth.com/pb/assets/raw/Health Advance/journals/ymai/AAAAI_2021_LateBreaking_Abstracts.pdf
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