Unusual presentation of primary aldosteronism with advanced
Patients with primary aldosteronism have greater cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than patients with primary hypertension and a comparable cardiovascular risk profile.

Radiology case reports presents the case of a patient who developed multiple end-organ damage due to unrecognized and uncontrolled hypertension caused by an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. Clinical and radiological evaluation revealed hypertensive encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, retinopathy and nephropathy which required hemodialysis. Blood pressure control before surgery was difficult due to renal impairment that precluded the administration of anti-aldosterone drugs. Primary aldosteronism was cured by laparoscopic adrenalectomy and all antihypertensive drugs were suspended.

A remarkable aspect of this case is the discordant results at screening test for primary aldosteronism: even though aldosterone-to-renin ratio is the most reliable method to identify possible cases of primary aldosteronism it can be misleading especially in case of multiple comorbidities and concomitant antihypertensive treatment. Furthermore, anti-aldosterone drugs are worrisome to use when renal damage is advanced but can be reconsidered when hemodialysis begins.

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