Upper Respiratory Tract Co-detection of Human Endemic Corona
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CoV and pneumococcal co-detection by sex in childhood pneumonia was studied. The severity of viral respiratory illnesses is increased by bacterial coinfection and varies by sex, but the impact of coinfection and sex on human endemic coronavirus (CoV) species, which cause mild to moderate respiratory illness, was unknown.

Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs and other samples were collected from 3981 children less than 5 years hospitalized with severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 countries. Severity by NP/OP detection status of CoV and high-density (more than 6.9 log10 copies/mL) pneumococcus (HDSpn) by real-time polymerase chain reaction was assessed by sex using logistic regression adjusted for age and site.

--There were 43 CoV+/HDSpn+, 247 CoV+/HDSpn, 449 CoV/HDSpn+ and 3149 CoV/HDSpn cases with no significant difference in co-detection frequency by sex.

--More CoV+/HDSpn+ pneumonia was very severe compared with other groups for both males (13/22) and females (10/21), but only male CoV+/HDSpn+ required supplemental oxygen more frequently and had higher mortality than other groups.

--For females with CoV+/HDSpn+, supplemental oxygen was 25.0% and mortality was 10.0%.

Finally, co-detection of endemic CoV and HDSpn was uncommon in children hospitalized with pneumonia, but it was linked to increased incidence and mortality in males.

Source: https://journals.lww.com/pidj/Fulltext/2021/06000/Upper_Respiratory_Tract_Co_detection_of_Human.2.aspx