Vegans had higher risks of either total or some site-specifi
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Researchers planned to research the potential disparities in fracture risks between vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians. Vegans have a higher risk for total fractures when compared with meat eaters. Moreover, vegans, fish eaters and vegetarians have an elevated risk for Hip fractures, according to findings published in BMC Medicine.

In EPIC-Oxford, dietary information was collected at baseline (1993–2001) and at follow-up (2010).
-Participants were categorised into four diet groups at both time points (with 29,380 meat eaters, 8037 fish eaters, 15,499 vegetarians, and 1982 vegans at baseline in analyses of total fractures).
Outcomes were identified through linkage to hospital records or death certificates until mid-2016. Using multivariable Cox regression, the risks of total (n=3941) and site-specific fractures (arm, n=566; wrist, n=889; hip, n=945; leg, n=366; ankle, n=520; other main sites, i.e. clavicle, rib, and vertebra, n=467) were estimated by diet group over an average of 17.6 years of follow-up.

Compared with meat eaters and after adjustment for socio-economic factors, lifestyle confounders, and body mass index (BMI), the risks of hip fracture were higher in fish eaters (hazard ratio 1.26), vegetarians (1.25), and vegans (2.31), equivalent to rate differences of 2.9, 2.9, and 14.9 more cases for every 1000 people over 10years, respectively.
-The vegans also had higher risks of total (1.43; 1.20–1.70), leg & other main site fractures than meat eaters.
-Overall, the significant associations appeared to be stronger without adjustment for BMI and were slightly attenuated but remained significant with additional adjustment for dietary calcium and/or total protein.
-No significant differences were observed in risks of wrist or ankle fractures by diet group with or without BMI adjustment, nor for arm fractures after BMI adjustment.

Non-meat eaters, especially vegans, had higher risks, particularly hip fractures, of either total or some site-specific fractures. These risk differences were likely partly due to their lower BMI, and possibly to lower intakes of calcium and protein. This is the first prospective diet community study for both total and multiple individual fracture sites in vegetarians and vegans, and the results indicate that further study is required for bone health in vegans.

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