Xanthogranulomatous endometritis mimicking endometrial carci
Xanthogranulomatous endometritis (XGE) is an extremely rare chronic inflammatory condition, which may be associated with endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, or cervical stenosis.

Imaging features can be easily misdiagnosed as an aggressive malignancy. Published in the journal Radiology Case Reports, the authors present a case of XGE, which is the first case of XGE with serial multimodality imaging examinations, in addition to clinical, surgical and pathologic correlations. As such, this unique case illustrates the evolution of this rare disease.

A 74-year-old woman (Gravida 6, Para 4) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and a remote history of treated breast cancer, presented intermittently from 2009 through 2014 to the emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain. CT and ultrasound imaging demonstrated simple appearing fluid filling the endometrial canal in 2009.

The fluid collection enlarged over the next 4 years, measuring 2.8 × 2.5 × 1.3 cm (38 cc, anteroposterior by transverse by craniocaudal) in June 2009, 3.7 × 3.5 × 2.7 cm (146 cc) in September 2012, and 4.2 × 3.7 × 3.2 cm (208 cc) in March 2013. On endovaginal ultrasound in November 2012, the fluid collection demonstrated new dependent internal echogenic debris, suspected to represent hematometra or necrotic material. The patient failed to comply with the recommendations for gynecology follow up.

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