Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: The uncommon complicatio
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Chronic xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) represents a rare type of granulomatous inflammation characterized by unilateral enlargement of a kidney, hydronephrosis, and replacement of renal parenchyma by cysts containing serosanguinous fluid, with resultant loss of normal renal function. It frequently presents with recurrent non-healing subacute to chronic urinary infection and inflammation due to large obstructing or staghorn calculus. In our cases, along with classical CT findings of this uncommon disease, we present an unusual constellation of complications and disease severity, which are rarely reported despite the abundance of cases in the literature. In this report are two companion cases of diffuse and focal XGP with internal and external decompression, resulting in partial small bowel obstruction in the first case and osteomyelitis with nephrocutaneous fistula in the second case.

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