Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya: Ocular manifestations
The illnesses caused by the arbovirus have very similar/overlapping clinical presentation with prominent fever, headache, rash, myalgia and arthralgia. In fact, serologic surveys have demonstrated that outbreaks attributed to dengue in the past have actually turned out to be CHIKV or ZIKV infections. DFV and ZIKV are asymptomatic in approximately 75% of infections, in contrast to CHIKV where patients are symptomatic in 75–95% of infections. DFV is considered as the most serious of these infections, because of the rare but potentially severe dengue shock syndrome” that can lead to death. Both CHIKV and ZIKV related deaths are usually associated with Guillain–Barré syndrome, although recently ten death cases of ZIKV infection unrelated to the Guillain–Barré syndrome have been confirmed in adults. The three related arboviruses can cause ocular manifestations that may range in DFV from hyposphagma to maculopathy. In both ZIKV and CHIKV there is a more common involvement of the anterior segment including conjunctivitis, uveitis and increased intra-ocular pressure (IOP). However, vasculitis and retinal hemorrhages can also occur. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of DFV, ZIKV, CHIKV regarding the main features, physiopathology, and ocular involvement

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