A Seroepidemiological Survey for Pertussis among Adolescents
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Pertussis is a highly contagious vaccine preventable disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Waning of childhood vaccination-induced immunity has resulted in pertussis infection among adolescents in many countries. They, in turn, are a source of infection especially for young children in the community.

A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted where venous blood samples were collected from adolescents aged 10 to 19 y. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titer against pertussis toxin (PT) was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Titers more than 62.5 to less than 125 IU/mL and more than 125 IU/mL were considered to correspond to 1 y and 6 mo post pertussis infection, respectively and titer less than 5 IU/mL indicated undetectable levels.

A total of 281 subjects were recruited. All had received the primary vaccines and one booster dose with diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT). Second booster was taken by 120 (42.7%) and a third in adolescent age by 15 (5.3%) participants. Anti-PT mean antibody levels were 9.5 IU/mL. Evidence of pertussis infection in the previous year was observed in 11, and in the previous 6 mo in 8, whereas undetectable IgG were recorded in 153 adolescents.

In the present study, around 7% of adolescents had evidence of recent infection and they could act as a reservoir to unimmunized or partially immunized infants and children. This is significant as 54% of the adolescents tested had no detectable antibodies, suggesting waning immunity and susceptibility to pertussis, which can lead to periodic epidemics.

These findings suggest that, administration of one booster dose of pertussis vaccine to all Indian adolescents, as recommended by vaccine advisory bodies is justified.

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12098-021-03696-7