Blood Levels of Glycated Hemoglobin, D-Dimer, and Fibrinogen
This study aimed to describe the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), D-dimer (D-D), and fibrinogen (FIB) in different types of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

A total of 61 patients with diabetes, who were treated were selected. According to their non-mydriatic fundus photography and fundus angiography results, patients were divided into three groups:
1)Non-DR (NDR) group (n=23),
2)Non-proliferative DR (NPDR) group (n=17), and
3)Proliferative DR (PDR) group (n=21).

A control group of 20 people who had tested negative for diabetes was also included. The levels of HbA1c, D-D, and FIB were measured and compared, respectively.

Results:
--The mean values of HbA1c were 6.8%, 7.4% and 8.5% in the NDR, NPDR, and PDR groups, respectively.

--The control group values were 4.9%. These results indicated a significant statistical difference between groups.

--The mean values of D-D were 0.39 ± 0.21 mg/L, 1.06 ± 0.54 mg/L, and 1.39 ± 0.59 mg/L in the NDR, NPDR, and PDR groups, respectively. The control group result was 0.36 ± 0.17 mg/L.

--The values of the NPDR and PDR groups were significantly higher than those of the NDR and control groups, and the value of the PDR group was significantly higher than that of the NPDR group, indicating a significant difference between the groups.

--The mean values of FIB were 3.07 ± 0.42 g/L, 4.38 ± 0.54 g/L, and 4.46 ± 1.09 g/L in the NDR, NPDR, and PDR groups, respectively. The control group result was 2.97 ± 0.67 g/L. The difference between the groups was statistically significant.

Finally, blood levels of HbA1c, D-D, and FIB were considerably greater in the PDR group than in the NPDR group.

Source: https://www.dovepress.com/blood-levels-of-glycated-hemoglobin-d-dimer-and-fibrinogen-in-diabetic-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-DMSO
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