Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema, a clinical review
Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE) refers to the coexistence of upper lobe predominant emphysema with diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, mainly in the lower lobes. Although initially described in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), since then it has been described in other forms of pulmonary fibrosis, most notably collagen tissue disorder associated interstitial lung diseases. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) has a pivotal role in diagnosis. Recognizing CPFE is not an academic exercise but has significant clinical implications....