Estrogen enhances cardiac function, promotes energy metaboli
Estrogen may protect diabetes patients from cardiomyopathy. The study showed that severe insulin resistance in the heart causes cardiomyopathy and death in male mice. It also showed the sex hormone estrogen protected female mice. Type 2 diabetes patients and insulin-resistant patients exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction.
All female mice that lacked insulin receptor substrates survived for more than a year.
Female mice without insulin receptor substrates were less likely to experience severe cardiac dysfunction and death if they had ovaries. If the mice also lacked ovaries but received estrogen, it prolonged their lifespans. Doses of estrogen also protected IRS-altered male mice from heart dysfunction.
Loss of IRS1 and IRS2 genes in heart tissue disrupts cardiac energy metabolism, gene activity involved in mitochondrial function, and whole-body energy metabolism. On the other hand, estrogen partially reverses these effects.
Estrogen is important for healthy cellular signaling pathways and promotes mitochondrial function.