How to manage tension gastrothorax?
Tension gastrothorax is a kind of obstructive shock with prolapse and distention of the stomach into the thoracic cavity. Progressive gastric distension leads to mediastinal shift, reduced venous return, decreased cardiac output, and ultimately cardiac arrest. Therefore, it is crucial to decompress the stomach distension for the initial resuscitation of tension gastrothorax.

Case presentation
A 75-year-old female was transported to our resuscitation bay due to motor vehicle crash. At the time of arrival to our hospital, the patient developed cardiac arrest. While undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, an unstable pelvic ring was recognized, so we performed a resuscitative thoracotomy to control hemorrhage and to perform direct cardiac massage. Once we performed the thoracotomy, the stomach and omentum prolapsed out of the thoracotomy site and through the diaphragm rupture site and spontaneous circulation was recovered. Neither the descending aorta nor the heart was collapsed. Although we had continued the treatment for severe pelvic fracture (including blood transufusions), the patient died. Given that (1) the stomach prolapsed out of the body at the time of the thoracotomy; (2) at the same timing, spontaneous circulation returned; and (3) the descending aorta and heart did not collapse, we hypothesized that the main cause of the initial cardiac arrest was tension gastrothorax.....
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