Medically savvy smartphone imaging systems
Based on inherent capabilities like built-in cameras, touchscreens, and 3D sensing, as well wearable peripheral devices, custom interfaces for smartphones can yield portable, user-friendly biomedical imaging systems to guide and facilitate diagnosis and treatment in point-of-care settings.

The review studies how smartphone-based imaging (SBI) systems are designed and tested for specialized applications in medicine and healthcare.

First, the established and emerging smartphone capabilities that can be leveraged for biomedical imaging are detailed. Then, methods and materials for the fabrication of optical, mechanical, and electrical interface components are summarized. Recent systems were categorized into four groups based on their intended application and clinical workflow: ex vivo diagnostic, in vivo diagnostic, monitoring, and treatment guidance. Lastly, the strengths and limitations of current SBI systems within these various applications are discussed.

~~The native smartphone capabilities for biomedical imaging applications include cameras, touchscreens, networking, computation, 3D sensing, audio, and motion, in addition to commercial wearable peripheral devices.

~~Through the user-centered design of custom hardware and software interfaces, these capabilities have the potential to enable portable, easy-to-use, point-of-care biomedical imaging systems.

~~However, due to barriers in the programming of custom software and on-board image analysis pipelines, many research prototypes fail to achieve a prospective clinical evaluation as intended.

~~Effective clinical use cases appear to be those in which handheld, noninvasive image guidance is needed and accommodated by the clinical workflow.

~~Handheld systems for in vivo, multispectral, and quantitative fluorescence imaging are a promising development for diagnostic and treatment guidance applications.

A holistic assessment of SBI systems must include interpretation of their value for intended clinical settings and how their implementations enable better workflow. A set of six guidelines are proposed to evaluate the appropriateness of smartphone utilization in terms of the clinical context, completeness, compactness, connectivity, cost, and claims.

Journal of Biomedical Optics
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