New study associates intake of dairy milk with greater risk
A prospective cohort study of 28,737 Seventh-day Adventist men in the United States and Canada, of whom 6389 were of black ethnicity. Diet was measured by FFQ, and 275 male participants also provided repeated 24-h dietary recalls as a calibration sub-study. In total, 1254 (190 advanced) incident prostate cancer cases were found during an average 7.8 y of follow-up. Men at the 90th percentile of dairy intake (430 g/d) compared with the 10th percentile (20.2 g/d) had higher prostate cancer risk (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.43). Similar findings, comparing the same g/d intakes, were demonstrated for advanced prostate cancers (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.88), for nonadvanced cases (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.45), in black participants (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.58), and when excluding vegan participants (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.43). Calibrated dairy (g/d) regressions (all participants and all prostate cancers), adjusting for dietary measurement error, found a HR of 1.75 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.32). Comparing 90th percentile intake to zero intakes (uncalibrated), the HR was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.26, 2.05). There was no evidence of an effect of higher (905 mg/d) compared with lower (349 mg/d) intakes of nondairy calcium (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.44).