World Rabies Day 2019: Prevention, symptoms, types, diagnosi
Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral disease which occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. Dogs are the main source of human rabies deaths, contributing up to 99% of all rabies transmissions to humans. Interrupting transmission is feasible through the vaccination of dogs and the prevention of dog bites.

Prevention:
1) Eliminating rabies in dogs
2) Awareness of rabies and preventing dog bites
3) Preventive immunization in people
Human rabies vaccines exist for pre-exposure immunization. These are recommended for people in certain high-risk occupations such as laboratory workers handling live rabies and rabies-related (lyssavirus) viruses; and people (such as animal disease control staff and wildlife rangers) whose professional or personal activities might bring them into direct contact with bats, carnivores, or other mammals that may be infected.
4) Pre-exposure immunization is also recommended for travellers to rabies-affected, remote areas who plan to spend a lot of time outdoors involved in activities such as caving or mountain-climbing.

Symptoms:
The incubation period for rabies is typically 2–3 months but may vary from 1 week to 1 year, dependent upon factors such as the location of virus entry and viral load. Initial symptoms of rabies include a fever with pain and unusual or unexplained tingling, pricking, or burning sensation (paraesthesia) at the wound site. As the virus spreads to the central nervous system, a progressive and fatal inflammation of the brain and spinal cord develops.

There are two forms of the disease:
People with furious rabies exhibit signs of hyperactivity, excitable behaviour, hydrophobia (fear of water) and sometimes aerophobia (fear of drafts or of fresh air). Death occurs after a few days due to cardio-respiratory arrest.
Paralytic rabies accounts for about 20% of the total number of human cases. This form of rabies runs a less dramatic and usually longer course than the furious form. Muscles gradually become paralyzed, starting at the site of the bite or scratch. A coma slowly develops, and eventually, death occurs. The paralytic form of rabies is often misdiagnosed, contributing to the under-reporting of the disease.

Diagnosis
Current diagnostic tools are not suitable for detecting rabies infection before the onset of clinical disease, and unless the rabies-specific signs of hydrophobia or aerophobia are present, clinical diagnosis may be difficult. Human rabies can be confirmed intra-vitam and post mortem by various diagnostic techniques that detect whole viruses, viral antigens, or nucleic acids in infected tissues (brain, skin, urine, or saliva).

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP):
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the immediate treatment of a bite victim after rabies exposure. This prevents virus entry into the central nervous system, which results in imminent death. PEP consists of:
-extensive washing and local treatment of the wound as soon as possible after exposure;
-a course of potent and effective rabies vaccine that meets WHO standards; and
-the administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG), if indicated.

Extensive wound washing
This involves first-aid of the wound that includes immediate and thorough flushing and washing of the wound for a minimum of 15 minutes with soap and water, detergent, povidone iodine or other substandard es that kill the rabies virus.

Recommended PEP
Depending on the severity of the contact with the suspected rabid animal, the administration of PEP is recommended as follows

-Category I - touching or feeding animals, animal licks on intact skin (no exposure)
Post-exposure prophylaxis measures: None

-Category II - nibbling of uncovered skin, minor scratches or abrasions without bleeding (exposure)
Post-exposure prophylaxis measures: Immediate vaccination and local treatment of the wound

-Category III - single or multiple transdermal bites or scratches, contamination of mucous membrane or broken skin with saliva from animal licks, exposures due to direct contact with bats (severe exposure)
Post-exposure prophylaxis measures: Immediate vaccination and administration of rabies immunoglobulin; local treatment of the wound

Source: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rabies
B●●●u S●●●●a and 61 others like this20 shares
Like
Comment
Share
T S
T S Dentistry
How is it a national loss to learn dog body language and stay away from rabid dogs or admitting them to a veternary centre?
Sep 28, 2019Like
Dr. S●●●●●●d A●●●d
Dr. S●●●●●●d A●●●d General Medicine
Extremely educative, informative and well described article for medical professionals as well as general public !
Sep 28, 2019Like4
Dr. s●●●●p s●●●●●●●●●a
Dr. s●●●●p s●●●●●●●●●a Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Latest WHO guidelines says that wound closure can be performed if necessary, provided that immunoglobulins are injected in the wound thoroughly n cautiously
Sep 28, 2019Like4